Cocaine is one of the oldest known psychoactive stimulants that is highly addictive and directly affects the brain. Due to cocaine being an ongoing problem of epidemic proportions, a vaccine to prevent cocaine addiction has been researched for decades. However, the beginning of 2015 saw the possibility of what might be a substantial cocaine vaccine to cure addiction.
Ketamine was developed in 1962, promoted and used as a fast-acting general anesthetic. In 1970, the government approved the use of ketamine for human use, and it soon become a powerful anesthetic. Following shortly were reports of illicit use of the drug, initially originating on the West Coast. Meanwhile, various forms of the drug had started hitting the market in forms of pills, capsules, powder, crystals and solutions. During the mid-1980s, ketamine was linked to different dance cultures and settings, making it popularly known as the “club drug.” In the face of this increasing recreational use, the government classified ketamine as a Schedule III controlled substance in 1999.
Drug addiction affects a person psychologically and socially. Addiction is analogous to casting a net that ensnares friends, family members, employers, clinicians and society as a whole. Addiction disrupts attendance at work or school, may contribute to criminal activity and subsequent trouble with the law and can result in financial ruin when money for necessities is being spent on drugs.
MDMA (3, 4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine), commonly known as Ecstasy, has been studied to confirm its therapeutic potential. A national survey revealed that psychedelics, despite their legal status, may hold promise for fighting depression and anxiety.
A study from The Journal of the American Medical Association estimated about 13,500 babies are born each year with symptoms depicting maternal drug abuse. The issue of substance abuse during pregnancy is more prevalent than commonly realized. According to the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 5.4 percent of pregnant women aged 15 to 44 used illicit drugs. The rate of current illicit drug use in the combined 2012-2013 data was 14.6 percent among pregnant women aged 15 to 17, 8.6 percent among women aged 18 to 25, and 3.2 percent among women aged 26 to 44.
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